Sunday, March 22, 2020
College life ainÃ¢â¬â¢t cheap. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s some tried and true ways to save a buck (or two). 1.Food doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be expensive. Buy in bulk. Go shopping with your token Mom Gave Me A Costco CardÃ¢â¬ buddy and stock up on essentials like rice, veggies, and meats (if thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the way you roll, man). Set a dollar limit for how much you can buy. $50 can go a long way, especially if you freeze the stuff you canÃ¢â¬â¢t use right away. And remember, donÃ¢â¬â¢t shop when youÃ¢â¬â¢re hungry. 2. Look for ways around buying pricey textbooks. Why pay $200 for your Chemistry textbook when you can buy it on Thriftbooks or Amazon for half the price? For many of your classes, professors will have textbooks available on reserve in the library to check out. And even better yet, more and more texts are becoming available online! Do a little research before you drop hundreds on books you may never need after graduation. When you do buy them, make sure to keep them in decent condition and sell them back at the end of the quarter/semester. 3. Trade your clothes! Places like Crossroads, Buffalo Exchange and others will offer to pay for your used clothes. Use the cash to buy yourself a new sweatshirt, or stash it for later. To sell successfully just use the right strategy. Bring stuff people would actually want to wear. Sell your old sweaters just before winter comes around, save your shorts for spring. 4. Share costs, whenever possible. Opt for housing with other people. Sure, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have less privacy, but youÃ¢â¬â¢ll also save bucket loads on rent and utilities. Also, without being a mooch, talk to friends about going in for bigger price tag items together. Couches, Netflix, and gym memberships are meant to be shared! 5. Craigslist is your friend. For cheap furniture and houseware items, this is the way to go. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not the sketchy, weird place TV shows make it out to be. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve purchased couches, shelves, speakers, mattresses, lamps and more from Craigslist with no issues. Selling is easy too, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re smart and friendly about it. Emails and postings should be specific and clear. An example: Ã¢â¬Å"Hi there! IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to buy your Hello Kitty Waffle Maker. If itÃ¢â¬â¢s still available, I can pick it up tomorrow at noon. Feel free to call/text me any time at __-__-___, thanks!Ã¢â¬ 6. Wait to get a pet. We know - who doesnt want a puppy? But unless youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got a bunch of extra cash lying around, the cost of feeding an animal every day can take a toll on your wallet - and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s in addition to pricey veterinary bills! Besides, between classes, work, and extracurriculars, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have the time your little poofball deserves. Instead, consider walking dogs. Surprisingly you can make bank doing this. Apps like Ã¢â¬Å"WagÃ¢â¬ make finding business super easy. (Or, if you simply love animals, donate your time to an animal shelter). 7. Get a job at a pizza place. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll essentially get paid to eat pizza. Work is generally laid back, and you can find pretty flexible shifts. Cha-ching. (Technically this one applies to any kind of restaurant, but thereÃ¢â¬â¢s probably a superfluous number of pizza places in your college town. And thereÃ¢â¬â¢s always leftover pizza, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just fact.) 8. Test out of classes. Look at course requirements and options for testing out of certain classes. Why spend time and money on material you could easily test out of? This trick is most often applied to language courses, but can be used for lower division math, science, and English courses as well. 9. Walk, bike, or use public transportation. Seems like a no brainer, but chances are you could be getting around for a lot cheaper. Walking or biking may take longer, but ultimately youÃ¢â¬â¢ll save big on gas and insurance. Take advantage of discounts offered to students by your local public transportation services - all youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need is your Student ID. 10. When holidays and birthdays come around, ask for gift cards. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be pushy about it, but do drop hints to family and friends. Yeah, you could tell grandma you want a hoverboard for your 20th. But you could also ask for a Safeway gift card and avoid having to pay for groceries the next two months. Imagine the luxury of buying an avocado without a second thought! 11. Take advantage of FAFSA. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a pain to fill out, but the payoff can be huge. Even if you apply Freshman year and donÃ¢â¬â¢t receive any big scholarship, try again each year. The government likes to invest in students their 3rd and 4th years.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
SCHIZOPHRENIA1 essays Schizophrenia, from the Greek word meaning split mind, is a mental disorder that causes complete fragmentation in the processes of the mind. Contrary to common belief, schizophrenia does not refer to a person with a split personality or multiple personalities, but rather to a condition which affects the persons movement, language, and thinking skills. The question of whether schizophrenia is a disease or collection of socially learned actions is still a question in people mind. People who are suffering from schizophrenia think and act in their own the world and put themselves in a way that is totally different from the rest of society. In other words, they have lost in touch with the reality. Most schizophrenics accept the fact that they have this disorder and are willing to receive necessary treatment and listen to, if not follow, professional advice. However there are cases where patients have lost insight and do not acknowledge the fact that they suffer from a mental disorder. As a result, these people do not have the treatment normally patients with schizophrenia do. To observers, schizophrenia may seem like a disease or madness because people who have this disorder behave differently to the people that are considered normal. It impairs a person from doing work, going to school, taking care of his/herself or having a social relationship with others. Yet, by looking at some of the symptoms, it is sometimes hard to classify schizophrenia as a disease because it enables those inflicted with it to develop new ways of communication intellectually and creatively, as well as enhancing artistic abilities. A disease is usually some kind of sickness that will lead to death or under heavy medication. However, this is not the case. For now, there is no cure but only treatment to help people with schizophrenia to live more productive lives. Generally, schizophrenia carries enormous threats to ...
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Building Sector and Energy Consumption - Essay Example From this essay it is clear tha the Ã¢â¬ËaverageÃ¢â¬â¢ building implements materials with relatively low embodied energy and a limited amount of HVAC equipment. The energy Ã¢â¬ËefficientÃ¢â¬â¢ building achieves an 80% reduction in heating energy demand and 40% reduction in cooling energy demand. The LCA shows how, even with a very significant reduction in operating energy consumption, the energy Ã¢â¬ËefficientÃ¢â¬â¢ building may consume more energy than the Ã¢â¬ËaverageÃ¢â¬â¢ one in relatively short life times if no care is taken about its embodied energy.This paper stresses that the effect of transportation energy requirement becomes also evident in this case, being the highest energy contribution for the Ã¢â¬ËaverageÃ¢â¬â¢ building, and the second one, after the embodied energy, for the energy Ã¢â¬ËefficientÃ¢â¬â¢ building. From a building energy point of view, these distributed urbanization schemes offer more chances for energy efficiency measures and appli cation of renewable energy technologies than centralized urbanization schemes. It is just through transportation energy requirements that sustainable building considerations interact with the higher structure sustainable urbanization approach.Ã Building energy assessment, extended to its design, construction, and useful life, allows for a proper quantification of the building's energy implications, and hence provides the basis for appropriate planning in the sector.Ã Energy regulation has a perceptive character, and its objective should be to establish and limit the upper bound for the buildings energy consumption.... ows how, even with a long analysis period (100 years), the energy 'efficient' building may consume more energy than the 'average' one if care is not taken about its EE. Evolution of accumulated energy consumption for two 150 m2 dwellings, an average one and another with pretensions of energy efficiency on basis of its reduced operating energy demand. (Laustsen, 2003) The results presented in Fig. 1 assumed a rather low increase in operational energy efficiency, but even with higher energy efficiency improvements we may find similar results with lower life cycle periods. The 'average' building implements materials with relatively low embodied energy and a limited amount of HVAC equipment. The energy 'efficient' building achieves an 80% reduction in heating energy demand and 40% reduction in cooling energy demand. The LCA shows how, even with a very significant reduction in operating energy consumption, the energy 'efficient' building may consume more energy than the 'average' one in relatively short life times if no care is taken about its embodied energy. Life cycle analysis for two 150 m2 dwellings, an average one and another with pretensions of energy efficiency on basis of its reduced operating energy demand, for a life time of 30 years. (Addis, 2002) The effect of transportation energy requirement becomes also evident in this case, being the highest energy contribution for the 'average' building, and the second one, after the embodied energy, for the energy 'efficient' building. From a building energy point of view, these distributed urbanization schemes offer more chances for energy efficiency measures and application of renewable energy technologies than centralized urbanization schemes. It is just through transportation energy requirements that sustainable
Monday, February 3, 2020
An Employee Refusal to Work Overtime Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2
An Employee Refusal to Work Overtime - Case Study Example In this case a company has increased the number of working hours of an employee named Gryzmisk to six hours and he has refused to accept the increase in hours and in turn the supervisor has sanctioned him to a 1 day suspension. The acceptance and rejection of the offer of increase in hours of work is dependent on mutual agreement between the employer and the employee. The employee has obtained assistance from the union and the union is backing him up in this case. During the negotiations between the union and the company the company has said that the increase in number of hours cannot be changed because it is for a specific period of time. As an arbitrator I would have provided a solution that is best in the interest of the company as well as the employee. First I would have negotiated with the employee that the extra hours are essential for the growth of the company and in turn it would even benefit the employee in the long run as these extra hours would add to the productivity of the organization and would help in the growth of the organization which will eventually help the employee. On the other hand I would have negotiated with the employers for additional benefits in the short run and in the long run for the employee. In the short run I would have asked the employers to not only pay the per hour rate to the employee, I would have asked the employer to increase the per hour rate for each extra hour worked by the employee. Secondly, I would have asked the employers to provide him certain bonus or promotion.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Scope Of Study And Limitations English Language Essay At the mention of the term chick lit, it is unavoidable to assume that it is a colloquial form of chick literature or something more elaborate. Campbell (2006) puts it aptly when she says that we should acknowledge that the very term is demeaning and probably peppered with a tinge of sexism. Chick is a derogatory term for the presumably empty-headed girls or young women who are both the characters and the readers; lit is an ironic reference to the assumed lack of quality writing in the form (p. 487). Most definitions of chick lit outline its characteristics; highlight the general plot, the illustrations on the cover and its target audience which do not quite explain the genre as a whole or do it any justice. This study therefore will use the definition describing the genre as heroine-centred narratives written by women that focus on the trials and tribulations of their individual protagonists, to appeal to other women (Kent, 2007 Smith, 2008). Chick lit has been at the brunt of a lot of criticism. According to Razdan (2004), it is wildly successful and that is where the problem lies. Most critics cannot seem to get past the covers in pink or fluorescent green, highlighted with flirty, fashionable accessories like purses or high heels (Ferriss Young, 2006b). However, it does not end there. The major attack is due to it reflecting postfeminist values through its protagonists, themes and plots. The characters in chick lit are young women with newly found independence dealing with careers and the demands of urban pop culture (Campbell, 2006). Ferris Young (2006b) describe them as women who commit errors at the workplace, drink excessively at times, are hopeless when it comes to cooking, or are attracted to unsuitable men quite unlike the flawless women of romance fiction. In short, these characters generally embrace or portray postfeminist values, acknowledging that feminism has taken place and won them equality but all the same, they do not want to be called feminists because of the indulgences feminism has rejected in the past like romance. When it comes to the themes, despite their timelessness and universality, they seem to be rubbing people the wrong way probably because the lifestyle choices this novels centre around are seen as a betrayal of feminism and its call for equality (Davis-Kahl, 2008). Unfortunately for those who hold this view, the themes addressed in chick lit are claimed to be the representation of sociological truths about womens lives today (Knowles, 2004). Although this might seem unsettling, Ferriss and Young (2006b) put forward that chick lit focuses on the issues dear to cultural critics heart. It appears that some just refuse to acknowledge that times are a changing. Looking at the plot, Knowles (2004) claims that many variations can be found in the genre itself but the fundamental structure of the main character looking for satisfaction in a romance-consumer-comedic vein usually characterizes writing in these texts. The inevitable fact for this genre is its broader focus on relationships (Davis-Kahl, 2008, p. 5). Almost every novel has a protagonist pining for a man, dealing with issues like weight, self-image, career burnout and other things along the way once again reflecting these post-feminist values. In her paper, Glasburgh (2006) puts forward five postfeminist characteristics defined by Faludi (1991): 1) negative reaction to second wave feminism, 2) focus on the individual instead of a collective sisterhood, 3) desire for more traditional femininity through domesticity, consumerism, romance, and motherhood, 4) female identity crisis causing fears of a man shortage, a loudly ticking biological clock, and career burnout, and 5) feelings of anxiety over ability to make the correct future decisions. Based on content analysis on ten chick lit books, she concluded that the protagonists generally did reflect characteristics of postfeminism (Glasburgh, 2006, p. 76). These postfeminist characteristics are what critics are debating about. Some feel that chick lit should be taken seriously because it is about the current generation of women while others feel chick lit is force-feeding the current generation with postfeminist values. This study attempts to explore students perspectives on this matter. 1.2 Statement of Problem Even before the existence of chick lit, womens writing has suffered a long history of scoffing (Davis-Kahl, 2008). They have been described as frothy, prosy, pious, pedantic (Eliot, 1856, p. 35) and women writers have been referred to as a damned mob of scribbling women (Ticknor, 1913, p. 141). On the 23rd of August, Beryl Bainbridge, then Booker Prize favourite, called Bridget Joness Diary a froth sort of thing (Davies, 2001), echoing George Elliots words two centuries before. At that point, chick lit had become the new form of womens writing which was under attack. This intentional sidelining of womens fiction has been said to stem from sexism. Both men and women place value on different things such as men on sports and women on fashion and as a result, all things associated with men have been viewed as important while women pursuits have been considered trivial, transcending even into the value placed on books (Woolf, 1929). Chick lit has now been subject to bashing by critics for more than a decade. The most popular claim is that chick lit is force-feeding society with postfeminism values while supporters of the genre claim that chick lit is merely reflecting todays culture. Whether or not chick lit has been affecting culture or the other way round is yet to be seen as not much research has been done in that area. Most certainly, chick lit is a force to be reckoned with based on its soaring popularity. One thing that must be noted in light of this situation is that there has been very little research on the area of chick lit in the academic field. Even in the small number of researches that have been conducted, the majority of it focuses on content analysis from romance, feminist and postfeminist perspectives. This study will focus on the students perspectives towards chick lit from a postfeminist approach as opposed to stand alone text analysis. In their courses on classic womens fiction and chick lit, Ferris and Young (2006b) have concluded that students were certain that despite the fascinating cultural issues raised by chick lit novels, they could not quite contend with the work of Jane Austen, the BrontÃ «s, Virginia Woolf and Zora Neale Hurston but were unable to state why. This study attempts to go a step further in trying to uncover the issues in which students can relate to and understand the reasons behind it. 1.3 Purpose of Study This study aims to:- Find out the perspectives of students towards chick lit in relation to post-feminism. Uncover the reasons behind these perspectives. 1.4 Research Questions 1. What are the perspectives of students towards chick lit in relation to post-feminism? 2. What are the reasons behind these perspectives? 1.5 Significance of Study The results of this study will reflect the reception of undergraduate students towards chick lit from a postfeminist point of view. It will also explore the reasons behind these perspectives. These results will help to determine whether chick lit should be incorporated into the syllabus to be considered as part of a genre of literature like classic womens fiction. If the reception towards chick lit in light of postfeminism is found to be good, even on a micro-level, it opens up a very viable premise for chick lit to be used as a foundation for teaching literature. Allowing students to utilize materials which they can relate to as a basis of their exploration and providing them with the ability to clarify the plus points as well as shortcomings of a book or a genre is powerful (Davis-Kahl, 2008). Characteristics of postfeminism have been found to be present in chick lit novels to a certain extent. Therefore, chick lit has been claimed to be the document of a new generation quite unlike the era in which writers like Jane Austen and the Bronte sisters lived in. While it is important to note that cultural, social and geographical factors counts for something, the ability of students to relate to a piece of work does a lot to help discuss its literary value. In fact, these novels have the potential to be used in the classroom to explore the generational differences in feminism, uncover the reasons why classic fiction stand the test of time, and to develop an appreciation for the intricate plots, subtle characterizations, memorable language of such works (Ferriss Young, 2006b). Chick lit can be used as a basis for discussions as to the reasons for the significance of womens writing, the changes it has undergone, and the opinions of women in fiction, be it popular or literary. This evolution that fiction in general and womens fiction has gone through is an area worthy of study especially due to its popularity, ease of access and representation of issues that modern women face (Davis-Kahl, 2008, p. 8). Furthermore, chick lit will be viewed as an important representation of modern womens writing, doing this new area of popular womens writing some justice (Ferriss Young, 2006b). This establishment of chick lit as a learning tool or viable area of study in the academic sphere will eventually lead to it being readily available in academic libraries allowing students with interest to gain access to them. 1.6 Scope of Study and Limitations Participants involved in this research are Year 3 Trimester 2 Bachelor of Arts (Hons) English Language students selected through purposive sampling. This study has a number of limitations. First, the sample may not accurately reflect the opinions of students in general towards chick lit. Secondly, the sample does not contain an equal mix of genders to accurately reflect views towards chick lit. Thirdly, some participants may be unfamiliar with the genre itself and therefore incapable of providing their perspectives towards it. However, a brief set of definitions are provided in the questionnaire to help respondents to familiarize themselves with the subject area. 1.7 Definition of Key Terms Chick lit : heroine-centred narratives written by women that focus on the trials and tribulations of their individual protagonists, to appeal to other women (Kent, 2007 Smith, 2008). Feminism: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦the belief in the social, political, and economical equality of the sexes (Rowe-Finkbeiner, 2004) Post-feminism : A shift away from the feminist idea of needing to right the wrongs of a patriarchal society with regard to women (Faludi, 1991). Post-feminist Backlash Theory: The claim that popular culture has been the direct cause of a backlash on feminism, understood as postfeminism, by attempting to blame it for the supposed misery of women today and calling for a return to a more traditional femininity (Faludi, 1991). 1.8 Organization of the Thesis This study consists of a total of five chapters; Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology, Findings Analysis, and Discussion Conclusion. The first chapter which is the Introduction addresses the background of study, statement of problem, purpose of study, research questions, significance of study, scope of study and limitations, the definition of key terms and the organization of the thesis. The second chapter, Literature Review will outline the history of chick lit, the history of post-feminism, address the five post-feminist characteristics used in this study as well as discuss past researchers study. The third chapter, Methodology will explain the research design, sampling, instruments used for data gathering, the pilot study, procedures as well as the data analysis. The fourth and fifth chapter will present the findings and discuss its significance in relation to the study as well as provide recommendations for further research respectively.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
IntroductionThe practice of Pharmacy has gradually improved over the last few years, from the traditional practice, patient counseling to dispensing automation, the practice continue to develop more means to deliver efficient pharmaceutical care and facilitate the reduction of medication errors in all aspects of health care. Interestingly, one of the means that was implemented is the program called Telepharmacy. This program is currently practiced in North Dakota, Washington and Australia.Telepharmacy is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the use of state-of-the-art telecommunication technology by the pharmacists to be able to provide pharmaceutical care to patients at a distance. Ã¢â¬ (Khatri, 2006). Factors associated with the hindering of quality pharmaceutical service in remote communities are geographical barriers, lack of available pharmacists working on remote towns, distance of the pharmacies, financial issues and unavailability of the medicines, which will be sufficiently addressed by imp lementing the telepharmacy.Several studies have also concluded that limited pharmacist hours adversely affect the contributions that pharmacists can make to medication safety in rural hospitals. (M. Casey et al. , 2008). With the implementation of Telepharmacy, delivery of 24-hours pharmaceutical service will be addressed. As telecommunication being an indispensable part of effective exchange of information, its application to the practice of dispensing medical information poses a valuable contribution to the field of Pharmacy, paving another means to effective delivery of pharmaceutical care to patients at a distance.With the modernization and growing complexity of medicines being capable of curing, mitigating and treating disease, the need for the Pharmacists becomes more evident to ensure the safe and cost-effective use of it. Since the Telepharmacy program is capable of developing better access to a more efficient health care wherever the patients are, adequate attention must be employed to the program and the readiness of community pharmacists for the program must be established. With Telepharmacists being the ones performing complete drug utilization reviewson the patient medication profile and performing the mandatory patient education counselling to patients over the phone, the readiness of the community pharmacist on the task is crucial to the effective implementation of the Telepharmacy (C. Peterson, H. Anderson et al. 2004). Even though pharmacists are not physically present in their area, patients can access consultation with a registered pharmacist and get their prescription verified through video conferencing (Riley, 2010).Enabling dispensing of medication via telepharmacy will increase access to more pharmacy services by more patients. By telepharmacy, the problems and restrictions pertaining to medication counseling by Pharmacists will be addressed even in the most urgent time and situations. The readiness of the Registered Pharmacists for the program will lead to the accomplishment of the Telepharmacy in the country since it will eventually mean that the goals that were set up for were attained, the intended purposes were met and generally produced a strong impression or response from the clients.Licensed pharmacists provide traditional pharmacy services, including drug utilization review, prescription verification, and patient counseling to a remote site via telepharmacy technology. Retaining the active role of the pharmacist helps assure the delivery of safe, high quality pharmacy services that can be at risk when the pharmacist is left out as in the case of internet and mail-order pharmacies.(Peterson, 2004) The researchers believe that in pursuing this study, the awareness of the public and professional-alike on the tremendous contribution of Telepharmacy which is fully practiced in other countries in facilitation of quality pharmaceutical care will be raised considerably. And along with the idea that Telepharmacy re duces any possible medication errors, with Pharmacists giving counsel on the phone, the practice of Pharmacy in the country will be improved which will result to its full implementation in the Philippine setting therefore marking the pharmacistÃ¢â¬â¢s role as more crucial to the health care of the Filipinos.The evaluation of the readiness of the Pharmacist will be stepping stone to prove that the Telepharmacy program can be carried out successfully in the country. With this study, the possibility of the practice of Telepharmacy in Philippine setting will be determined and assessed, which will render it as a proof for the service to be utilized more in the country for more effective drug information dissemination. Review of Related LiteratureTelepharmacy has the potential to improve the quality of pharmaceutical care and decrease medication errors and adverse drug events in small rural hospitals. However, because telepharmacy is relatively new, there is little literature in peer-re viewed journals. (M. Casey, et al, 2008). In other countries, the implementation of Telepharmacy in dispensing drug information to patients at a distance is being greatly utilized due to its considerable usefulness on improving the practice of Pharmacy and they were even able to develop various models of the service.In the US, there are two models of telepharmacy: North Dakota Telepharmacy and Washington State Model, employing pharmacists giving instructions to the technicians via a video-conferencing link and pharmacists activating automatic dispensing system from the base site to be dispensed by an authorized personnel at the remote site, respectively. Australia also developed a Rural Clinic Model of Telepharmacy that permits non-pharmacist professionals to render the pharmaceutical services. In all the models of telepharmacy aforementioned, the dispensing stage are all divided into 5 steps: 1.) Prescription 2. ) Prescription Entry and Verification 3. ) Dispensing Process 4. ) Dis pensing Verification and 5. ) Patient Counseling, with the latter being done by the pharmacists as required in all the three models (M. Kimber, et al, 2006) According to a recent cost-benefit study conducted by Westerlund and Marklund (2009) in Sweden, when pharmacists are involved in primary care, out of 151 patients used in the study, 68 patients (13%) were saved from drug related problems and 16 patients (3%) were saved from future hospitalizations.Quality pharmaceutical services have been described as: dispensing, supply and distribution of medicines; provision of knowledge and information about drugs, with the primary objective being the promotion and assurance of quality use of medicines (QUM); and provision of pharmaceutical care, which involves pharmacists responding to patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ drug-related needs to assist them achieve their desired health outcomes. (M. Kimber, et al, 2006).The fact that the Telepharmacy service permits delivery of effective pharmaceutical care to m ore patients at a distance, this contribution will offer greater edge on the practice of Pharmacy as a whole and is consistent with the main goal of the practice which is pharmacists being an indispensable part of the health care system as the experts in drug use. In addition to the contribution of telepharmacy to the practice, it also offers significant advantage on the health care system on its ability to provide workers in more remote settings.The main aim of tele-pharmacies is to provide maximum coverage in areas with few pharmacies and increase the revenue for pharmacy operators (Riley, 2010). Telepharmacy arrangements have been proposed as a way for smaller rural hospitals with limited pharmacist coverage to obtain additional pharmacist resources (Lordan, Vorhees, and Richards, 2002; Peterson et al, 2007). Since half of the Philippine population lives in rural and remote communities, this calls for immediate attention on providing adequate and quality pharmaceutical care in th e said locations.According to the Report of the Commision on the Future Care in Canada by Romanow (2002), telepharmacy, as part of telehealth, is considered as a mechanism for improving access to health care services for rural and remote communities. The telepharmacy is equipped with video cameras so that the pharmacy technician can be supervised by a registered pharmacist. The location of the remote pharmacy is often linked to central pharmacy software to make this process smother and ensure timely and correct delivery (Riley, 2010).With the dynamic and transitional improvement of the telecommunication technology in present time, the counseling of pharmacists to patients at a distance will be delivered with ease and convenience. Adoption of telepharmacy has been slow, but the convergence of available technology and renewed interest in a new pharmacy practice model has created a unique set of circumstances that may present the perfect opportunity for telepharmacy.(Fahrni, 2012) Tele pharmacy significantly offers advantage on addressing medication queries through telephone by eliminating all barriers of communication when it comes to discussion of personal and confidential issues of the patients. According to the study of Louderback (2007), situations such as Ã¢â¬Å"traveling two to five hours for appointments is not only time consuming, but costlyÃ¢â¬ influence patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions to approach treatments. This is one of the reasons why treatments results in poorer control of chronic health condition especially to the elderly people living in the remote towns.Research also confirms that Ã¢â¬Å"economic pressures and geographic barriers are difficulties that rural elders face when they seek to obtain prescription medicationsÃ¢â¬ (Collins, 2007). It obviously calls for the fact that there is a need for telepharmacy to improve the management of chronic conditions and reduce the expenditures required to transport patients for medication treatment, especi ally those who incurred drug related problems. Given the numerous factors that the telepharmacy can addressed when it is widely implemented, any possible medication errors will be avoided accordingly.In the Philippines, the practice of Telepharmacy is not widely recognized due to various factors that affect the successful operation of the service, plus the fact that the country is still far from the full implementation of the service. However, the Pharmaceutical Society of Singapore has proposed some guidelines which can be followed in order to successfully operate a Telepharmacy service. The proposed set of guidelines provide the framework for implementation of telepharmacy service designed to restore and retain retail and hospital pharmacy services in remote rural communities that are located in medically underserved areas.Telepharmacy services produce the same quality of pharmacy services as the traditional mode of delivery and provide additional value-added features that are not found with traditional pharmacy practice. (C. Peterson, H. Anderson et al. 2004) Having been studied pharmacy enables one to develop many skills. Some of these skills and abilities are specific to the role of a pharmacist. Skills are the ability wherein individual uses his knowledge effectively in doing something. Practice is an act of applying; to carry out; to work repeatedly to be proficient or to be professionally engaged (Merriam Webster, 1995).Synthesis Methods of giving information have been a trend in developing countries. There was once a state in America which started to recognize the use of telepharmacy. The North Dakota Telepharmacy Project was established in 2002 for the purpose of restoring, retaining, or establishing pharmacy services in medically underserved rural communities through the use of telepharmacy technology. Telepharmacy offers a pharmacist/business owner the opportunity to expand the professional and financial sides to their operation. (Boudjouk) Accordi ng to the comparison study of D.Friesner, et al (2011) on the rate of medication error incurred in a remote pharmacy site that utilizes telepharmacy and community pharmacies that do not adopt the technology, greater use of technology has the potential to reduce medication errors. Advancement in computer technology, videoconferencing, and voice over IP (VoIP) technology, ubiquitous internet access, and mobile computing will make the use of telepharmacy simpler than ever before. Combined with improvements in pharmacy automation and pharmacy technician practice, the use of telepharmacy as a tool to help build a new practice model has become a reality.(Fahrani, 2009) In agreement with the previous study of D. Friesner, et al, the researchers indeed believe that facilitation of telepharmacy in the delivery of pharmaceutical services will contribute to the reduction of medication error. However, the proposed study aims to determine whether Community Pharmacists in the Philippines are read y to deliver and practice the standard North Dakota Telepharmacy Program. Previous studies were solely devoted to determining the rate of medication error of two pharmacy sites, with or without telepharmacy.The proposed study will be focusing on the crucial participation of pharmacists to raise the acceptance level for Telepharmacy in the Philippines as mean to deliver efficient pharmaceutical service to patients at a distance. Rendering the registered pharmacists ready for the facilitation of telepharmacy will enable a quality telepharmacy to be delivered, equating to a quality traditional pharmacy only with the use of communication technologies to patients at a distance. Fahrani and Boudjouk studies showed how telepharmacy can make a difference in the practice of pharmacy. The studies also included how telepharmacy works in the community.Advancement of technology helps the development of the pharmacy practice. The researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ study will evaluate the skills of a registered pharmacists based on the skills that a telepharmacist must possess in order to deliver efficient telepharmacy service. Pharmacists work within a code of professional ethics that encompasses their relationship with other pharmacists, other health professionals and the public. A well-developed sense of responsibility is essential and an ability to communicate effectively with other health professionals and the general public is important.Pharmacists just need skillsÃ¢â¬â¢ that helps in improving patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ quality health care. A licensed pharmacist shall do their tasks and responsibilities. A professional, technical and communication skills are essential to be able to deliver a better service. Pharmacist must make patients comfortable with the Telepharmacy technology prior to receiving services. Pharmacists need to work on changing patient expectations and behaviors related to mandatory patient education counseling so that patients learn to expect it as a routine part of pharm acy practice regardless of the mode of delivery.Patient interaction with the pharmacist is important that just mean that patient is learning in the counselling process, which is a good sign afterwards there will be compliance. (Peterson and Anderson, 2004). Conceptual Framework The fast-paced, ever-changing and exciting technology has created a new thinking in Pharmacy. Telepharmacy is one of the outputs of technology. With telepharmacy information can be delivered to patients at high-speed.Needless to say, the application of telepharmacy in other countries has greatly improved the internal operations of counselling making it possible for clients to develop their knowledge and gain services more quickly and reduce internal costs. Establishing the perception of the community pharmacists themselves on the development of the Telepharmacy program to better accommodate patients from afar and give them optimum access on what the pharmacy has to offer regardless of the distance will be reg arded as one of the aspects to consider for the full implementation of the program.A pharmacist who believes on the goals of the Telepharmacy is important for its successful implementation and therefore will improve the efficiency of the healthcare to underserved areas. More than the aim to gain competitive advantage, telepharmacy is an effective way to minimize medication errors, cope with a small number of pharmacists in a country. Telepharmacy is really an ideal method of counselling which is difficult to achieve in its totality. However, Pharmacy boardsÃ¢â¬â¢ commission must take actions to transform the ideal to a reality. Conceptual Paradigm of StudyStatement of the Problem This study aims to describe the perception of community pharmacists on their own skills as being prepared to deliver the Telepharmacy service. The researchers will gather data through the use of questionnaires in which various queries will be addressed. Specifically, the following questions will be answer ed: 1. What is the community pharmacistsÃ¢â¬â¢ best definition of Ã¢â¬ËTelepharmacyÃ¢â¬â¢? 2. What are the requirements needed in order to operate a Telepharmacy service? 3. How do the community pharmacists perceive their own readiness for Telepharmacy? 3.1 Professional Skills 3. 2 Technical Skills 3. 3 Communication Skills 4. What other ways can the program be developed? 5. What is the relationship between the demographic profile of the pharmacist and their skills? 5. 1 Age 5. 2 Gender 5. 3 Civil status Hypothesis Medicinal compliance of patients increases with the utilization of effective telepharmacy service delivered by Pharmacists capable of successfully carrying out the procedures of the program. Accordingly, Telepharmacy will pave a way for a much more systemic & effective drug information dispensing to patients at a distance.Significance of Study By gaining a better understanding on the pharmacistsÃ¢â¬â¢ own perception on their skills being ready for the delivery of Telepharmacy, it will greatly aid the utilization of this service in improving the practice of Pharmacy in the Philippines by establishing Pharmacists as crucial for optimal health care delivery. Pharmacists will be regarded as a much more indispensable part of health care since their knowledge in drug information will be available at a distance through Telepharmacy.This program also poses an advantage in addressing the insufficiency of pharmacists in remote towns as well as the various factors associated with the hindering of successful facilitation of quality pharmaceutical services such as geographical barriers, transportation, availability of medicines, etc. Scope and Delimitation of Study In this study, the researchers would like to determine the community pharmacistsÃ¢â¬â¢ self-evaluation of their skills necessary to deliver an efficient Telepharmacy and therefore efficient healthcare service to the patients regardless of their distance.The study is limited to the community pharmacists practicing in the city of Las Pinas. It will also determine the pharmacistsÃ¢â¬â¢ perception on what Telepharmacy really is and what they think composes a Telepharmacy program. Definition of Terms Telepharmacy Ã¢â¬â the provision of drug information to patients at a distance by the use of telecommunication technology. Licensed Pharmacist Ã¢â¬â A pharmacist who has completed the full program of education, and has passed a state licensing examination.Remote Site Ã¢â¬â a full service pharmacy staffed by a registered pharmacy technician with access by computer, audio and video link to a licensed pharmacist at a central pharmacy site while open. The Ã¢â¬Å"remote siteÃ¢â¬ is analogous to Ã¢â¬Å"originating siteÃ¢â¬ , where the patient is located. Central Site Ã¢â¬â refers to a Pharmacy with a registered pharmacist, who is trained to carry out dispensing of P medicines and POM via telepharmacy. Telepharmacist Ã¢â¬â a Licensed Pharmacist who review medicat ion orders, oversees dispensing of the pharmacy assistants and facilitates patient counselling remotely through telephone and other communication technologies.
Friday, January 10, 2020
The blistering cold atmosphere shrouded by its crystalline twilight embodied it's presence over the dark Tamoe Highlands; the field which divided the two kingdoms of Lucil. The gloomy surroundings pierced the night sky, causing people to wonder what sort of menace was at work here; what evil had corrupted the lands of their beloved domain. Gathering people crawled outside of the city walls, on both fronts; the kingdoms of Garthia, and Reynard. They stood in amazement, as sparks of light flickered over head, vaporising the darkness that should have been convenient, replacing it with the most beautiful pearl-like spheres; whose exterior was sheltered with tiny diamonds of exquisiteness. The people turned their gaze to a larger sphere, more dominant, as it were. This orb was unlike anything anyone had ever seen; it's splendour unmatched. The stone cold daze of every single soul; every human, had its eyes fixed on its occurrence, as it twirled in the sparkling sky, gleaming its magnificence for all to see. People began to pace themselves, gradually moving their feet, eyes always focused on their objective; the sphere. They were drawn to its presence, drawn there by some unseen force, or perhaps, they were a victim to greed; all wishing to obtain this obsidian of absolute perfection. Whatever the reason, they all wanted the same thing. Every last person there wanted to touch this orb in the sky, before them. As one of the kingdom members reached out for it, the others became slightly annoyed, agitated by what was happening. Before they knew it, their calm, peaceful, hands became weapons, as they fought each other for this object; this beauty. The greed in every single of them was reflecting the golden aura in each of their eyes, as they killed one another for the sake of this newly born object. One by one, the slaughter went on, humans dying, fighting for the possession of this item. Eventually, one remained; a man by the name of Tarik. He was a great man, a blacksmith, from the kingdom of Reynard. He was a very respectable man; always there when his service was needed, and even when it wasn't needed, he would be there to give a helping hand to anyone who needed it. Grasping the golden sphere in his hands, he peered into its surface; curious of where this came from Ã¢â¬â it's origin. Nothing like this had been seen before, so it was obvious to him that he was holding some sort of relic; an item that was clearly sought after. He held this item close to his chest, making sure his grip was tightly holding it; afraid someone would steal it from him. Years past, times changed, kingdoms crumbled, and legends were created, and people's theories blinded those who were imprudent enough to alter the truth. Stories were told, people were educated; wondering where this mysterious orb now lay. There were many different stories and films dedicated to exploiting the truth, but they were always altered in on way or another; never fully showing what happened. A young boy strutted up to the building, hands lying lazily in his coat pockets, playing with the loose change he gained upon purchasing some goods for his mother, half-hour past. He tilted his head as he approached the suede doors; seemingly pondering about it's interior. He let our a silent sigh, as he took the last few steps, before swinging the giant doors open with a keen thrust. Ã¢â¬Å"Anybody home?Ã¢â¬ he muttered, echoing through the dark halls of the building. There was no response. The boy gazed around, looking for someone he could possibly talk to. He walked towards the reception desk, peering over the counter, to find absolutely no one there. The boy then retreated back a few steps, before searching once more for someone, anyone, who could help him. Ã¢â¬Å"Peter?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ËPeter' turned around, his gaze now fixed on the speaker of his name; searching needlessly to match their face to a name. Ã¢â¬Å"Back again, I see. Hm, you'll have to learn we won't help you with every single needÃ¢â¬ alleged the woman, powerfully, with her strong voice. Peter's head tilted forwards, staring at the ground, as if the words of this woman have shunned his feelings, making him sad in the event that he could not get his own way. Removing his hands from his pockets, he brushed stray hairs from his face, and gently tucked them behind his ear. Ã¢â¬Å"I understandÃ¢â¬ ¦it's just that, I've heard so much about this sphere, I need someone to actually help me find it!Ã¢â¬ The young boy was keen, his will strong, on finding the legend of his homeland, Lucil. He wanted to experience, and understands, the beauty his people had witnessed over four thousand years before him. He was certain it lay dormant in this particular place, but had no one to help him excavate it. The woman shook her head, and walked forwards towards Peter. She patted him softly, on his cushioned hair, comforting him, before strolling off down one of the larger corridors; her feet creating constant echoes of footsteps in her wake. Ã¢â¬Å"I'll get itÃ¢â¬ ¦with or without help, I'll get itÃ¢â¬ thought Peter, as he thudded the doors open, once more, with his hands; this time, more quickly and powerfully, to match his newly acquired mood. The streets of New Reynard were silent; the day was drawing to an end, as the bright sun sunk behind the surrounding mountains. Clouds were growing darker, as rain began to trickle from their interior; showering the city, making a melody of frequent drumming, as it landed onto the earth. Peter peered up, staring into the clouds, before sitting down, peacefully, in the rain. He loved the rain; loved to be in it because of its glorifying touch, its caring aura of water. He just sat there, embracing the cold, damp, atmosphere, as he pondered existence, just as he always did when he was sat in the rain. The young boy wonderedÃ¢â¬ ¦about the sphere, more than anything. What importance does it have to the world? Why is it here? There were a lot of questions that he wanted, but was afraid, to discover. Hours past, and the rain moved on, revealing the midnight sky, and the all of its stars, intertwined its beautiful crescent. Peter stood up, soaked with water, he waltzed off down a road leading to his home; water trickling down his spherical visage. As he unlocked his door, he walked inside, taking his shoes off at the door, and planting them beside his families, before taking off his coat and placing it on a hanger. His family were long asleep, and he feared to wake them, so he simply ran upstairs to bed; pulling his blankets over his head, and dreaming of this sphere-like relic he desired to obtain. Morning arose, and he jumped out of his tiny bed. As he did so, he fluffed his pillow, and placed the blankets back over his bed. Peter spoke to none of his family, still, and walked out of the door, slamming it behind him, as he hastily walked off into the bustle streets of New Reynard. He was engulfed in desire to find this sphere, he was determined, and today, he would find it. After 2 years of research, and revising the theories, and so called Ã¢â¬Å"truthÃ¢â¬ on this event that took place 4000 years ago, he was determined, and sure, he would find it today; alone, if he had to. Running towards the mountains, Peter swung his arms as he ran as fast as he could. Before coming to the edge of town, he crossed the bridge that separated the settlement from the grasslands of Lucil; but it wasn't very far to the mountain range, still. As he approached the mountains, there was a rather unexpected sound emerging from the depths of a cave; somewhere that had previously been explored many a time. The roaring noise became more frequent, and thunderous, as he stepped towards it. His necklace that was passed onto him from the generations of fathers seemingly began to fluctuate, as he got nearer, and nearer. Approaching even further still, the tiny bead on his necklace sprouted a neon-glow of blue, as it fired a tiny laser of accuracy into a small gap in the cave wall; causing an explosion of rock as it fell crumbled away, revealing a compartment within the caves. Peter approached it, his heart racing faster than it ever had, clutching at his chain to steady it. Slowly walking towards the inner area of the wall, he glared at a metallic shrine in front of him; he basked at its glory, for it was shunning a powerful aura of energy, sparking at the corners, where energy was leaping from its body. The boy walked towards the memorial; drips of sweat dripping down his face, as he approached it steadily, wondering what this was. He finally stood right next to it, reaching his right arm out slowly, as he tapped the surface with his index finger; wondering if anything would actually happen. There was a glare of blinding light, and Peter stood back, falling to the ground as he did so. His heart began to fluctuate even more, as the shrine hovered into the air, spiralling around in circles, like some sort of magic was in play here. There was a heart, tempered, voice coming from it, as it twirled in the air. Ã¢â¬Å"HahahaÃ¢â¬ ¦so you think you can take my sphere, do you? Hahaha!Ã¢â¬ All of a sudden, the top of the memorial blew off, revealing a travesty of golden beams piercing the cave walls, and ceiling. Peter closed his eyes, whilst throwing his hands in front of his face, to shield himself from the blinding light that was in play. He wished that he had never come here, that he had never revealed this sacred shrine that was before him now; scaring him into thinking about nothing but torment. A man jumped out of the casket that was on the shrine, and walked towards Peter slowly; a golden sphere of beauty gently cradled in his arms, as he walked forwards, grinning as he did so. He spoke one more, in a more taunting manner. Ã¢â¬Å"Peter, Peter, PeterÃ¢â¬ ¦how dare you intrude my place of sleep. How dare you think you can steal my sphere! How dare you!Ã¢â¬ Throwing his arm forwards, the man pierced Peter's chest with his fist; revealing blood to drip from his lifeless body, as he fell backwards, lying completely on the floor; red liquid spurting from his mouth, as he choked in his own blood. The man grinned, before turning around, and heading back into the casket one more, to lay dormant again, with his precious sphere of beauty; protecting it from anyone who thinks they can take it from him. The mountains were once again silentÃ¢â¬ ¦nothing could be heard, nothing was to be seen. The dark skies covered the twilight horizon, as day became a fragment of bliss. Ã¢â¬ ¦that is the tale, of the striking orb. The tale that has been since passed on from man to man; but, who could have passed on, when there was no one there but the boy? Theories have emerged, legends have been written, but no one knows for sure how the story came about.